If a child has 3 or more of the following warning signs, encourage that child’s parents and teachers to learn more about dyslexia. In Preschool • delayed speech • mixing up the sounds and syllables in long words • chronic ear infections • severe reactions to childhood illnesses • constant confusion of left versus right • late establishing a dominant hand • difficulty learning to tie shoes • trouble memorizing their address, phone number, or the alphabet • can’t create words that rhyme • a close relative with dyslexia In Elementary School • dysgraphia (slow, non-automatic handwriting that is difficult to read) • letter or number reversals continuing past the end of first grade • extreme difficulty learning cursive • slow, choppy, inaccurate reading: – guesses based on shape or context – skips or misreads prepositions (at, to, of) – ignores suffixes – can’t sound out unknown words • terrible spelling • often can’t remember sight words (they, were, does) or homonyms (their, they’re, and there) • difficulty telling time with a clock with hands • trouble with math – memorizing multiplication tables – memorizing a sequence of steps – directionality • when speaking, difficulty finding the correct word – lots of “whatyamacallits” and “thingies” – common sayings come out slightly twisted • extremely messy bedroom, backpack, and desk • dreads going to school – complains of stomach aches or headaches – may have nightmares about school

In High School All of the above symptoms plus: • limited vocabulary • extremely poor written expression – large discrepancy between verbal skills and written compositions • unable to master a foreign language • difficulty reading printed music • poor grades in many classes • may drop out of high school In Adults Education history similar to above, plus: • slow reader • may have to read a page 2 or 3 times to understand it • terrible speller • difficulty putting thoughts onto paper – dreads writing memos or letters • still has difficulty with right versus left • often gets lost, even in a familiar city • sometimes confuses b and d, especially when tired or sick

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